Why there won’t be an effective vaccine against COVID-19 [VIDEO]

ER Editor: This article below is the last section of a longer piece by virologist Dr. Emma Kahn, titled Covid-19 vaccine and herd immunity, that’s no… and still no… .

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Why there won’t be an effective vaccine against COVID-19

Strangely enough, the three vaccines in clinical trials in the West (excluding China) against Covid-19 are being developed by start-ups and not by Big Pharma.

Why have the major vaccine manufacturers (Merck, GSK, Sanofi, Pfizer, etc.) not launched any clinical studies?

A first reason is worrying: the best experts in the industry already know that coronavirus vaccines are too risky, they induce facilitation and immuno-pathological phenomena. The phenomenon of facilitation of infection by antibodies deserves an article of its own and will be discussed later on this blog.

 What vaccines are currently being tested in humans?

  • The company Moderna22 is experimenting with a messenger RNA vaccine. This type of vaccine has never been tested on humans.
  • The company Inovio23 is developing a DNA vaccine that requires an electrical discharge to get the DNA into the cells. This is called electroporation. This type of vaccine and this electroporation technique has also never been tested on humans. Electroporation increases inflammation at the injection site and does not adjuvant the vaccine!
  • The Oxford Vaccine Group brings together scientists from Oxford and receives funding from the manufacturers of OVG vaccines.24 . This candidate vaccine is based on an adenovirus vector that carries the SARS-CoV-2 protein S. (spike protein).25

Since the SARS-CoV outbreak of 2003 and MERS-CoV in 2012, vaccine trials have been initiated, and numerous animal studies of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV vaccine candidates have been published. These vaccines appear to generate numerous adverse effects in animal models. Clinical studies on humans since 2004 have not been published, and some have even been withdrawn.26 The results of this study are not yet available, suggesting significant unintended effects or lack of effectiveness.

Since 2014, Institut Pasteur has been developing combined vaccines against SARS-CoV from the 2002-2003 pandemic: the measles vaccine virus combined with the protein “spike” by recombination with a plasmid.27. Only the mouse trials have been published.28

As mentioned above, in addition to the problem of possible reversion to pathogenicity of all live attenuated virus vaccines, particular mention was made of associated immunopathological reactions (increased in the presence of adjuvants) and facilitation (of infection) phenomena:

Vaccinated subjects are made more susceptible to subsequent infection with the same coronavirus as that targeted by the vaccine.29

Excerpt from the magazine “Sars where we are ?” 30

 “The biggest problem is the fear of an ADE (antibody dependant enhancement, facilitation of infection by the vaccine, mediated by antibodies induced by vaccination): facilitation of the penetration of the virus into cells by the Fc fragment receptor of immunoglobulins“.

Two studies have shown this phenomenon: in ferrets, vaccinated with a poxvirus vector expressing the spike protein of the virus, with, in addition, an increased inflammation of the liver after infection compared to non-vaccinated animals.

On March 5 before the US Congress, at 39 minutes, Peter Hotez (official vaccine expert31) cautions against facilitation:

-“You have to be very careful and go easy with clinical trials, animal trials have shown facilitation” 32.

(ER: We’re adding the video of this here.)

The experts’ opinion on Covid-19 vaccines, published at the end of March 2020, is more than mixed:

  • “A vaccine must really be tested carefully. “
  • “…and not just throw it because people are clamoring for it when there’s an epidemic going on.”
  • “A vaccine could potentially induce more serious COVID-19 infections.”

Avoiding Pitfalls in the Search for a COVID-19 Vaccine“, March 30, 2020 33  Editorial of the PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Science). Likewise for Nature 34 April 21, 2020.

The Institut Pasteur has not launched a clinical trial, but the shares of Moderna and Inovio are skyrocketing on the stock market, so their holders will be able to sell them just before the catastrophic results of the clinical studies are revealed or even never published.

Then Big Pharma will eventually buy these start-ups with their know-how to apply it to other vaccines of the future.

The historical and theoretical aspect of the antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) phenomenon will be discussed in a future article on the AIMSIB blog.

We will see that this phenomenon has been known for a long time and is active for many viruses. We will also see that this immuno-pathological effect has been demonstrated in vitro for antibodies directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the same antibodies that are sought to be obtained with these candidate vaccines.

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Original article

Notes et sources:
1 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2167341/.
2 (Hedrich AW. Estimates of the child population susceptible to measles, 1900-1930. Am. J. Hyg. 17:613-630.).
3  (https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/ou_press/monthly-estimates-of-the-child-population-susceptible-to-measles-1900-cRtiLHH41a).
4 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21427399)
5https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/media/en/publications/Publications/SUR_EMMO_European-monthly-measles-monitoring-February-2012.pdf
6 (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1732654/).
7 (https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/38968/WHO_TRS_6_fre.pdf)
8 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27110809
9 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125620/ revue en français de 2009
10 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2271881/
11 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125530/,
12 https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/doi/10.1093/infdis/jiaa152/5814216
13 https://spectrumlocalnews.com/tx/san-antonio/news/2020/04/16/do-people-become-immune-to-coronavirus-after-recovering-from-it-
14 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22386268
15 https://www.lemonde.fr/blog/realitesbiomedicales/2020/04/17/covid-19-interrogations-sur-lexcretion-du-virus-et-la-reponse-en-anticorps/
16 https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.21.20068858v1
17 https://jvi.asm.org/content/94/5/e02015-19
18 (https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.21.20068858v1 ),
20 https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.21.20068858v1
21 https://www.mediterranee-infection.com/covid-19/
[22] https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.09.20059782v2
22 (https://www.tradingsat.com/actualites/informations-societes/travaillant-sur-un-vaccin-contre-le-coronavirus-moderna-veut-lever-500-millions-de-dollars-899695.html
23 https://www.zonebourse.com/INOVIO-PHARMACEUTICALS-I-17937428/societe/ et https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/inovio-ino-4800-coronavirus-vaccine-candidate-matched-novel-coronavirus-outbreak-discovered-china
24 https://www.ovg.ox.ac.uk/about)
25  http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/2020-03-27-oxford-covid-19-vaccine-programme-opens-clinical-trial-recruitment)
26 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=SARS&term=vaccine&cntry=US&state=&city=&dist),
27 (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042682214000051),
28 Journal du Dimanche du 26 mars 2020 https://www.lejdd.fr/Societe/Sante/antiviraux-et-vaccins-les-pistes-pour-freiner-le-coronavirus-3957841 « Vaccin recombinant utilisant le virus de la rougeole comme vecteur (Institut Pasteur, Themis Bioscience et Université de Pittsburgh)
Il s’agit d’un vaccin basé sur un virus de la rougeole atténué. Celui-ci est utilisé comme un véhicule à l’intérieur duquel se trouve un gène codant pour une protéine du virus SARS-CoV-2. Le virus vecteur délivre l’antigène du SARS-CoV-2 au système immunitaire, pour induire une réponse protectrice.
Ce consortium a déjà fait preuve de son expérience dans le développement de tels vaccins, dirigés contre le MERS, le VIH, la fièvre jaune, le virus du Nil occidental, la dengue et d’autres maladies émergentes. Leur vaccin est en phase préclinique »
29 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065352716300422?via%3Dihub
« Molecular Basis of Coronavirus Virulence and Vaccine Development »
30 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19538115 ,
31 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Hotez
32 https://science.house.gov/hearings/beyond-coronaviruses-understanding-the-spread-of-infectious-diseases-and-mobilizing-innovative-solutions
33 https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/03/27/2005456117
(34) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-020-0321-6

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